Vaccinations play a vital role in reducing the risk of disease in your horse. Zoetis offers the most trusted portfolio of equine vaccines to help keep horses healthy.1

What vaccines does my horse need?

Vaccinations are vital to maintain your horse's health and prevent infectious diseases. The American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) categorizes diseases as core or risk-based to provide clear guidelines on vaccination timing and frequency. Core vaccines, essential for all horses annually, protect against widespread, potentially fatal diseases that all horses may encounter regardless of lifestyle. In addition to core vaccines, risk-based vaccines might be recommended by your veterinarian, to protect against diseases your horse may be likely to encounter due to factors such as age, location, travel plans and contact with other traveling horses.2

    What are core diseases?

    Every horse in the United States is at risk of exposure to 5 potentially fatal core diseases: rabies, West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and tetanus. This risk arises because the carriers of these diseases—mosquitoes, wildlife and soil bacteria— are commonly present in horses’ daily environments. The AAEP advises administering core vaccinations to protect against these diseases on an annual basis, ideally in the spring before these carriers are most active.2

      West Nile Virus

      33% fatal2

      Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE)

      90% fatal2

      Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE)

      50% fatal2


      100% fatal2


      75% fatal3

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      Did you know?

      The incidence rate of rabies in horses is 4 times higher than the incidence rate of rabies in dogs.4-6

      What are risk-based diseases?

      The likelihood of a horse contracting a risk-based disease is influenced by age, environment and lifestyle. To ensure your horse is protected, ask your veterinarian for their recommendation on risk-based vaccines and vaccination frequency tailored to your horse's unique needs. Among risk-based diseases, respiratory disease is the leading infectious cause of death in horses, and equine influenza (flu) and equine herpesvirus (rhino) are the leading respiratory illnesses in horses. Because these diseases are highly contagious and can spread fast, flu and rhino vaccinations are recommended yearly for horses that encounter others.

        Equine Influenza (Flu)

        Equine Herpesvirus (Rhino)



        Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE)

        Potomac Horse Fever


        Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV)

        Equine Rotavirus

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        Did you know?

        Your horse can be exposed to equine influenza across the distance of half a football field.7

        Give your horse comprehensive disease protection with the perfect pair of vaccines

        Core EQ Innovator® is the first and only vaccine to protect against the 5 core diseases,8 and Fluvac Innovator® EHV-4/1 is the #1 most trusted equine respiratory vaccine on the market.Together, they form The Perfect Pair of vaccines, offering foundational protection for your horse. Discuss with your veterinarian whether your horse should receive any additional risk-based vaccines based on his unique lifestyle.

        2017-2022 EIV isolates
        2017-2022 EIV isolates
        Core Disease Protection
        • The first and only vaccine to help protect against all 5 potentially-fatal core equine diseases in one injection.8

        • 2 million doses sold since 201810

        • 99.7% reaction-free in field safety studies11,12

        • Safe for use in horses 3+ months old and pregnant mares in their third trimester8

        Learn more about Core EQ Innovator
        2017-2022 EIV isolates
        2017-2022 EIV isolates
        Equine Influenza and Herpesvirus Protection
        • Fluvac Innovator EHV-4/1 is the #1 most trusted equine respiratory vaccine in the United States.9

        • Successfully evaluated to cross-protect against 80 equine influenza viruses (EIV) isolated from 34 states, Canada and Europe, since 201813-18

          2017-2022 EIV isolates
          2017-2022 EIV isolates
        Learn more about Fluvac Innovator

        Created apart to be stronger together

        2017-2022 EIV isolates

        Core EQ Innovator and Fluvac Innovator EHV-4/1 were formulated to complement each other. Research has shown that dividing core and risk-based vaccines into separate injections provided up to 4.7 times the immune response against equine Influenza than combination vaccines that include influenza protection.19

        When should I vaccinate my horse?

        As spring arrives, it's crucial to vaccinate your horse to protect her from diseases before exposure to environmental factors such as mosquitoes, wildlife and contact with other horses. Your veterinarian can help you create a tailored vaccination plan that splits up core and risk-based vaccines to ensure complete protection for your horse’s specific needs. Below is a vaccination schedule for protection from core and risk-based respiratory diseases that align with the AAEP guidelines.

        DiseasesAdult HorsesFoalsBroodmares
        Core Diseases:
        West Nile Virus (WNV)
        Eastern Equine
        Encephalomyelitis (EEE)
        Western Equine
        Encephalomyelitis (WEE)

        Annual revaccination:
        Recommended in spring

        First vaccination at 4 to 6-months of age

        Second dose 4-6 weeks after the first dose

        Booster 10-12 months of age and annually thereafter

        Annual revaccination and administer 4-6 weeks pre-partum

        Core EQ Innovator is the first and only vaccine that includes protection against all five core diseases and has been demonstrated safe for use in broodmares during the third trimester.8

        Risk-based Respiratory Diseases:
        Equine Influenza Virus (EIV)
        Equine Herpesvirus (EHV-1 and EHV-4)

        Annual revaccination:
        Recommended in spring

        Horses at increased risk of exposure may receive a booster every 6 months

        First vaccination at 4 to 6-months of age

        Second dose 3-4 weeks after first dose

        Booster 10-12 months following the first dose and annually thereafter

        Horses at increased risk of exposure may receive booster every 6 months

        Annual revaccination and administer 4-6 weeks pre-partum

        Broodmares with ongoing risk of exposure should be boostered every 6 months


        In addition, other risk-based diseases may also pose a threat to your horse based on his unique needs and circumstances. Your veterinarian can provide guidance on which additional vaccines from the Zoetis portfolio may be appropriate for your horse’s vaccination schedule. See the vaccination guides below for adult horses, broodmares and foals for recommendations on what Zoetis vaccines may be appropriate for your horse’s unique needs.

        What sets Zoetis Innovator vaccines apart?

        MetaStim® adjuvant

        Only Zoetis Innovator vaccines are formulated with the MetaStim adjuvant, designed to make presenting antigens into your horse’s immune system safe and effective, leading to an improved immune response.20,21

        Microfiltered 5x

        Zoetis Innovator vaccines are microfiltered 5 times to remove excess proteins that could lead to increased reactivity, resulting in greater antigen purity.

        Zoetis vaccine support program

        When you protect your horse with Core EQ Innovator and Fluvac Innovator EHV-4/1 vaccines, you're also protected with one of the industry’s best equine immunization support guarantees. This reimburses up to $5,000 for diagnostic and treatment costs if a veterinarian properly administers one of these vaccines and the horse later contracts the corresponding disease. For complete details and requirements, see the Zoetis Equine Immunization Support Guarantee certificate.

        Extended portfolio of Zoetis vaccines

        Vaccinating against the five potentially fatal core equine diseases, along with any necessary risk-based vaccines tailored to your horse's individual needs, is essential for proactive protection. Working alongside your veterinarian, you can select from our additional range of safe and effective vaccines to ensure comprehensive protection for your horse.


        Multiple Diseases

        Ask a Vet

        The first and only vaccine to help protect against the 5 potentially fatal core equine diseases in a single injection.8


        Equine Influenza Virus

        Ask a Vet

        The #1 equine respiratory vaccine on the market. 9 Fluvac Innovator EHV-4/1 provides trusted protection against the risks of equine influenza and herpesvirus.


        West Nile Virus

        Ask a Vet

        This line of vaccines aids in the prevention of West Nile, equine encephalomyelitis due to Eastern, Western and Venezuelan viruses, and tetanus. In a study, it was demonstrated to be 96.7% effective in immunologically naive horses.22



        Ask a Vet

        Pinnacle® I.N.

        (modified-live streptococcus equi)

        Helps protect horses against strangles, the only modified-live bacterial vaccine developed to help prevent strangles caused by Streptococcus equi.


        Herpesvirus Type 1

        Ask a Vet

        Pneumabort-K + 1b®

        (killed equine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine)

        The only equine vaccine labeled for use in pregnant mares to aid in the prevention of abortion due to equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) infections and to help prevent respiratory infections cause by EHV-1p and EHV-1b.23-26


        Equine Rotavirus

        Ask a Vet

        For the vaccination of pregnant mares to provide passive transfer of antibodies to foals against equine rotavirus, a viral diarrhea.

        *This product is conditionally licensed by the USDA while additional efficacy and potency data are being developed.


        Equine Leptospirosis

        Ask a Vet

        Lepto EQ Innovator®

        (leptospira pomona bacterin)

        The first and only equine vaccine to help prevent leptospirosis in horses which may cause abortion, equine recurrent uvetitis, or renal disease.


        Equine Arteritis

        Ask a Vet


        (equine arteritis vaccine)

        Shown to be effective for the vaccination of healthy non-stressed adult horses as an aid in the prevention of viral abortion and respiratory infection due to equine arteritis virus.


        Multiple Diseases

        Ask a Vet

        For the vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of equine
        encephalomyelitis due to Eastern and Western viruses, and tetanus.


        What animals can transmit disease to my horse?

        Horses are susceptible to a range of diseases, and it’s important for horse owners to be aware of the potential sources of transmission. While there are many ways that a horse can contract a disease, one significant risk factor is exposure to carriers of disease. During the spring and summer months, when temperatures and rainfall increase, animals and mosquitoes that can transmit diseases to horses become more active and pose a greater threat.

        Some of the most common carriers of disease include raccoons, foxes, skunks, bats, birds and insects such as mosquitoes, ticks and fleas. These animals can carry a variety of diseases, from West Nile virus to equine encephalomyelitis to rabies.

        As a horse owner, it’s important to take steps to minimize your horse’s exposure to disease carriers. This might include controlling mosquitoes around your barn, monitoring your horse for signs of illness and keeping an eye out for any wildlife that could pose a risk. Vaccinating to protect your horse against diseases carried by mosquitoes and wildlife is vital.

        What are the most common horse diseases?

        Common horse diseases can be divided into two categories: core and risk-based diseases. The American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) recognizes 5 harmful core diseases that can be prevented by vaccination: West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, rabies and tetanus.2 These diseases can be transmitted by infected mosquitoes or wildlife, or through exposure to contaminated environments.2

        Equine influenza (flu) and equine herpesvirus (rhino) are highly contagious risk-based, respiratory diseases that can spread rapidly among horses. They are the leading cause of infectious-based deaths in horses and can result in significant economic losses for horse owners. Regular vaccination and biosecurity measures can help prevent the spread of these diseases.2

        What vaccines does my horse need? And what time of year should I vaccinate my horse?

        To ensure your horse stays healthy and protected, annual vaccination is crucial. Spring is the recommended time for vaccination as it offers protection from the 5 core diseases and risk-based diseases like equine influenza and equine herpesvirus.2 Your veterinarian may suggest additional vaccines based on your horse’s age, travel history and breeding status. It’s essential to work with your veterinarian to develop a vaccination plan that meets your horse’s specific needs and minimizes her risk of disease.

        Can horses infect humans?

        Horses are part of our family, so it’s essential to be aware of potential health risks when interacting with them. It’s not uncommon for horses to carry diseases that can be transmitted to humans.

        Some of the most common diseases that can be contracted by exposure to infected horses include Salmonella, ringworm, rabies, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and leptospirosis. These diseases can be contracted through direct contact with an infected horse or by encountering contaminated objects or areas such as stalls or equipment. Therefore, it’s crucial to take necessary precautions when working with horses, such as wearing gloves, washing hands frequently and avoiding contact with potentially infected areas. Horses should also be vaccinated to help prevent the spread of harmful diseases like rabies.

        Should I vaccinate my horse for rabies?

        Rabies is a highly dangerous disease that’s 100% fatal, and horses are at great risk for contracting it because of their environment. In fact, horses are 4 times more likely than dogs to get infected with rabies, making it essential to take preventive measures.4-6

        Vaccinating your horse in the spring against rabies and the other 4 core equine diseases—West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis and tetanus—can provide the necessary protection.

        Spring is the ideal season to vaccinate before wildlife carriers such as racoons, bats and skunks are at their most active.


        1. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Animalytix, Inc. Equine Vaccine MAT dose sales data June 2023.

        2. American Association of Equine Practitioners. Vaccination Guidelines. Accessed October 11, 2023.

        3. MacKay R. Tetanus. In: Sellon DC, Long M, eds. Equine Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier, 2007:368-372.

        4. Ma X, Monroe BP, Cleaton JM, et al. Rabies Surveillance in the United States during 2016. J Am Vet Med Assoc.2018;252(8):945-957.

        5.The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Pet Statistics.  Accessed Sept. 8, 2023.

        6. American Horse Council; Washington, D.C; 2017 Economic Impact of the U.S. Horse Industry.

        7. American Association of Equine Practitioners. Equine Influenza Guidelines. Accessed December 2022.

        8. Zoetis Inc. Data on file. Study Report No. B951R-US-20-160, Zoetis Inc.

        9. Animalytix Segment Data, Equine Vaccines, MAT June 2023 (accessed June 20, 2023).

        10. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, ZMR sales data for CORE EQ INNOVATOR® and CORE EQ INNOVATOR® + V. Zoetis Inc., 2018-2022.

        11. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. B951R-US-14-056, Zoetis Inc.

        12. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. B951R-US-16-106, Zoetis Inc.

        13. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 18EQRGBIO-01-02, Zoetis Inc.

        14. Dilai M, et all. Serological investigation of racehorse vaccination against equine influenza in Morocco. Veterinary Microbiology.223. 2018. 153-159

        15. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 19EQRGBIO-01-02, Zoetis Inc.

        16. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 21EQRGBIO-01-01, Zoetis Inc.

        17. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 22EQRGBIO-01-01, Zoetis Inc.

        18. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 23EQRGBIO-01-01, Zoetis Inc.

        19. Zoetis Inc. Data on file, Study Report No. 14OREQBIO-1, Zoetis Inc.

        20. Davis EG, Zhang Y, Tuttle J, Hankins K, Wilkerson M. Investigation of antigen specific lymphocyte responses in healthy horses vaccinated with an inactivated West Nile virus vaccine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126(3-4):293-301.

        21. Horohov DW, Dunham J, Liu C, et al. Characterization of the in situ immunological responses to vaccine adjuvants. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015;164(1-2):24-29.

        22. Epp T, Waldner C, Townsend HGG. A case-control study of factors associated with development of clinical disease due to West Nile virus, Saskatchewan 2003. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:498-503.

        23. Bryans JT, Allen GP. Application of a chemically inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine to control abortigenic infection of mares by equine herpesvirus 1. Dev Biol Stand. 1982;52:493-498.

        24. Tengelsen LA, Yamini B, Mullaney TP, et al. A 12-year retrospective study of equine abortion in Michigan. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1997;9(3):303-306.

        25. Giles RC, Donahue JM, Hong CB, et al. Causes of abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal death in horses: 3,527 cases (1986-1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;203(8):1170-1175.

        26. Hong CB, Donahue JM, Giles RC, et al. Equine abortion and stillbirth in central Kentucky during 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons. JVet Diagn Invest. 1993;5(4):560-566.